Bibliographic references and citations


Bibliographic references and citations

Facilities for creating and managing descriptions of information sources, citations and reference lists

When publishing the results of research or theoretical considerations, it is inevitable for the author of a scientific work to refer to the work or texts of other scientists and to demonstrate his or her relationship to them. It is important to do this honestly and ethically. Bibliographical references to sources must be provided to avoid plagiarism. The use of in-text citations makes it possible to identify the source cited. Information from sources can be used in several ways:

  • A quotation is a relatively short passage from another work, intended to prove or make intelligible the author’s own statements or to refer to the other author’s views or ideas as expressed in the original. The exact words of the author are given. A quotation is enclosed in quotation marks (“…”).
  • Paraphrasing – the thoughts of other authors retold in one’s own words, without distorting the author’s thought Paraphrasing is necessary to distinguish the other author’s thoughts from one’s own comments, and to use a variety of phrases, e.g. in the view of a scientist…, according to …, as argued by…, as stated by …, according to…, and others.

All sources cited, analysed and summarised in the research paper should be acknowledged in the text (references) and in the list of references (bibliographic descriptions of sources). All and only those sources mentioned in the text must be described in the text and only those sources included in the reference list must be mentioned in the text.

More information on Effective use of electronic scholarly information resources: eMoDB.LT national project training material for researchers and students[interaktyvus] 2019. Open access: